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This site will be dedicated to the furthering and sharing of knowledge of the origins and history of the Knees.

Variants

Kneebone (Cornish) , LeKne, O’Niah, McNee or Ne (Irish), Nee, Ney. See also French and German pages on this site.

Origin of the surname

My research suggests that the name may come from one of the skills associated with the process of Weaving, that of the Knee Carder, an early stage in the process of preparing wool for spinning and weaving by dragging it across toothed cards, with use of the knee to facilitate this process.

A 17th century poem by Richard Watts of Shepton Mallet names all the different jobs to do with cloth-making.

At first the Parter that doth neatly cull
The finer from the coarser sort of wool.
The Dyer then in order next doth stand,
With sweating brow, and a laborious hand.
With oil they then asperge it, which, being done,
The skilful hand of Mixers round it run.
The Stock-carder his arms doth hard employ…
Then the Knee-carder doth (without control)
Convert it to a lesser roll.
Which done the Spinster doth in hand it take,
And of two hundred rolls one thread doth make.
The Weaver next doth warp and weave the chain.
…and cries, come boy, with quills.
Being filled, the Brayer doth it mundify,
From oil and dirt that in the same doth lie.
The Burler then (yea, thousands in this place),
The thick-set weed with nimble hand doth case…
The Fuller then close by his stock doth stand,
And will not once shake Morpheus by the hand.
The Rover next his arms lifts up on high
And near him sings the Shearman merrily.
The Drawer last, that many faults doth hide,
(Whom Merchant nor the Weaver can abide),
Yet he is one in most cloths stops more holes
Than there be stairs to the top of Paul’s.
cull= separate out
mundify = purify
asperge = sprinkle
quill=a piece of hollow reed round which the weft (weaving thread) was wound.
Morpheus=god of sleep
Carder=someone who uses two cards (pieces of wood with metal teeth sticking out) which untangle the wool into a roll of fibres lying in the same direction.
Burler= someone who picked out moved tiny bits of twig, seed, grass etc still caught in the cloth
Rover= someone who draws out and slightly twists the fibres to make a ‘rove’.
Brayer(or scourer) = someone who cleans the newly woven cloth to get rid of oil and dirt.
Fuller= fulling was beating the wet cloth to shrink it and make it thicker. It used to be done by stamping on it, but later it was done with big hammers, powered by a water-wheel.
The cloth was ‘raised’ by brushing it with teasels which raised a ‘nap’.
Shearman = a skilled person who used big shears to cut off the unwanted nap from the cloth, making it smooth.
warp. = the arrangement of strong twisted threads hanging down from the warp-beam or roller. The weaver had to weave thinner threads (called weft) in and out of the warp. It was sometimes called a chain.

Wiltshire in the closing years of the 11th century stood tenth among the English counties in order of recorded population. It formed part of a large tract of more or less rewarding farming country that included Oxfordshire to the north and Berkshire to the east, with an average population of perhaps fifty to the square mile. Much of the county was still forested; and three acres out of every five were open downland, only thinly peopled by human beings but rich in sheep and wool. Thus the county was much more important in the English economy than its human population would suggest. In the 14th century it still remained tenth in order of recorded population (as reflected in the number of poll-tax payers in 1377) (fn. 1) but in taxable capacity it stood fourth, well behind Norfolk and Kent and only a little behind its neighbour Gloucestershire, with a very similar economy of good farmland, an important wool trade, and a growing cloth industry. (fn. 2)  http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=102806
.
The origins of Carder from the Surname data base web site: Recorded in several spelling forms including Card, Carde, and Carder, this is a medieval English occupational surname, and one concerned with the early textile industry. It derives from the Old French worde “carde” and is probably most associated with the famous Flemish Weavers who were brought to this country in the 13th century by King Edward 1st, to teach the skills of cloth making to the unskilled English. The word “carde” actually translates as “teasle head”, introducing the possibility that given the robust humour of the Middle Ages, it may also have been used as a nickname surname. What is certain is that the surname has the honour to be amongst the very first of all recorded surnames, and was probably regarded of great importance at a time when early industry was begining to make its mark. Examples of the recordings from those ancient times preserved in the surviving authentic charters and rolls include Lawrence Carde in the 1297 Assize register for the county of Cornwall, and later in 1332, John le Carder of Yorkshire, was recorded in the Friary Rolls for the city of Wakefield. The first known example of the name recording is probably that of Arnald Carde, in the 1221 rolls of Salop (Shropshire). This was during the reign of King Henry 111 of England, 1216 – 1272.
Perhaps Knee was the English ‘nick name’ surname version of this Flemish name?

Read more: http://www.surnamedb.com/Surname/Carder#ixzz2uhurjZo6

Bromham, as we know, was the cradle of the Knees. Bromham was a centre of one of the chief areas of the English Cloth Industry, in Western Wiltshire. The origins of this industry can be traced back to Beaker Folk (the builders of nearby Stonehenge and Avebury) and the Iron Age (see above link). The Wiltshire Downs were perfect for grazing sheep and the basin of the River Avon to the west, a source of water.

The most numerous names that spring from the BMD data from the parish records in Bromham are Webb, Hobbs, Knee and Chandler. Webb comes  from Webbe a male weaver, Knee probably from the carding process. The relevance of the origin of Hobbs (Celtic priest or son of Robert) is less clear but Chandlers supplied candles and light, which for the weavers tied to ruthless contracts, would have been an essential. A 1723 will for a Benjamin Knee of Chittoe lists him as a Broad Loom weaver. The cloth industry collapsed in the 17th century as I describe elsewhere, and much of the village population had to find work in other weaving areas or adapt to a life of farming and small holding.

The name is has two other possible derivations. Cneo is a medieval term for knee and the name could have stemmed from a nickname for odd shaped knees. Alternatively (or additionally) the name comes from a knee shaped piece of land or a bend in a river. Peter Knee established that the ‘cradle’ of the Knees was Bromham in Wiltshire.

I have to mention Niall Glundubh (Neill Black Knee d 919) High King of Ireland 916-919 (and from this the family name O’Neill) as a counterpoint to the simple origins of Knees as Wiltshire Weavers.  There is also a substantial tribe of US K nees derived from Philip Herman Knie who emigrated from Westphalia to Pennsylvania changing the name to Knee.

Historical occurrences

• Fred Knee (1868–1914), a printer by trade from Frome in Somerset, who became the first secretary of the London Labour Party in 1914 (to be succeeded by Herbert Morrison) and who once shared a stage with Trotsky.

• William Knee who established a Removal firm in Bristol in 1839 and who designed a purpose built removal vehicle – the pantechnicon.

Frequency of the name

From the British Surnames data base:

492 (current) 0.001%

463 (1881) 0.002%

Distribution of the name

In 1881 and in the present day the name is found predominately in Wiltshire, Gloucestershire and Somerset.

Also in the USA today (probably originating from migration in the 19th Century) the numbers are 3038 or 0.001% and Australia (probably from deportation in the 17th,18th and 19th Centuries) 164 or 0.001%

Please refer to:

http://www.one-name.org/profiles/knee.html

Birth: Nov. 23, 1882
Death: Sep. 16, 1920
Burial:
Westview Cemetery
Atoka
Atoka County
Oklahoma, USA
Plot: Rd 4, bottom, right, row 1
Created by: L Mastan
Record added: Oct 14, 2011
Find A Grave Memorial# 78433146
Lottie Carder-Knee

Knee: Wooden support brace used to strengthen the location where two timbers were joined or crossing. Rising knees supported the connection of deck beams to the hull or frame from above or below, lodging knees strengthened them laterally (sideways). See also crutch and stemson.

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